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Issue 48, 2014
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Copper(I)- and copper(0)-promoted homocoupling and homocoupling–hydrodehalogenation reactions of dihalogenoclathrochelate precursors for C–C conjugated iron(II) bis-cage complexes

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Abstract

Iron(II) dibromo- and diiodoclathrochelates undergo copper(I)-promoted reductive homocoupling in HMPA at 70–80 °C leading to C–C conjugated dibromo- and diiodo-bis-clathrochelates in high yields. Under the same conditions, their dichloroclathrochelate analog does not undergo the same homocoupling reaction, so the target dichloro-bis-cage product was obtained in high yield via dimerization of its heterodihalogenide iodochloromonomacrobicyclic precursor. The use of NMP as a solvent at 120–140 °C gave the mixture of bis-clathrochelates resulting from a tandem homocoupling–hydrodehalogenation reaction: the initial acetonitrile copper(I) solvato-complex at a high temperature underwent re-solvatation and disproportionation leading to Cu(II) ions and nano-copper, which promoted the hydrodehalogenation process even at room temperature. The most probable pathway of this reaction in situ includes hydrodehalogenation of the already formed dihalogeno-bis-clathrochelate via the formation of reduced anion radical intermediates. As a result, chemical transformations of the iron(II) dihalogenoclathrochelates in the presence of an acetonitrile copper(I) solvato-complex were found to depend both on the nature of halogen atoms in their ribbed chelate fragments and on reaction conditions (i.e. solvent and temperature). The C–C conjugated iron(II) dihalogeno-bis-clathrochelates easily undergo nucleophilic substitution with various N,S-nucleophiles giving ribbed-functionalized bis-cage species. These iron(II) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and by X-ray diffraction; their electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The isomeric shift values in 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of such cage compounds allowed identifying them as low-spin iron(II) complexes, while those of the quadrupole splitting are the evidence for a significant TP distortion of their FeN6-coordination polyhedra. As follows from CV data, the C–C conjugated iron(II) bis-clathrochelates undergo stepwise electrochemical reduction and oxidation giving mixed-valence FeIIFeI and FeIIFeIII bis-cage intermediates.

Graphical abstract: Copper(i)- and copper(0)-promoted homocoupling and homocoupling–hydrodehalogenation reactions of dihalogenoclathrochelate precursors for C–C conjugated iron(ii) bis-cage complexes

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Publication details

The article was received on 27 May 2014, accepted on 08 Jul 2014 and first published on 24 Jul 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4DT01557F
Citation: Dalton Trans., 2014,43, 17934-17948
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    Copper(I)- and copper(0)-promoted homocoupling and homocoupling–hydrodehalogenation reactions of dihalogenoclathrochelate precursors for C–C conjugated iron(II) bis-cage complexes

    O. A. Varzatskii, S. V. Shul'ga, A. S. Belov, V. V. Novikov, A. V. Dolganov, A. V. Vologzhanina and Y. Z. Voloshin, Dalton Trans., 2014, 43, 17934
    DOI: 10.1039/C4DT01557F

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