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Issue 32, 2014
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Homoleptic and heteroleptic N-alkylimidazole zinc(II)-containing ionic liquids for high current density electrodeposition

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Abstract

New homoleptic and heteroleptic zinc(II)-containing liquid metal salts with N-alkylimidazole (AlkIm) ligands and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N) anions are described. The general formulae of the complexes are [Zn(AlkIm)6][Tf2N]2 and [Zn(AlkIm)6−x(AlkIm′)x][Tf2N]2. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that, in the solid state, the cations consist of octahedral zinc(II) centres. The heteroleptic complexes contain two different N-alkylimidazole ligands. The melting points of the liquid metal salts are below or slightly above room temperature. The dependence of the melting points, viscosity and crystal structure on the alkyl chain length of the N-alkylimidazole ligand for the homoleptic complexes and on the ratio of the two N-alkylimidazole ligands AlkIm and AlkIm′ for the heteroleptic compounds is discussed. The possibility of incongruent melting and the presence of a mixture of the four-coordinate zinc(II) centre and neutral ligands is discussed. The new zinc(II)-containing liquid metal salts have been used as non-aqueous electrolytes for electrodeposition of zinc. A highly reversible deposition–stripping behaviour was found. Zinc electroplating was possible at very high current densities of more than −200 mA cm−2 in unstirred solutions. Compact and highly crystalline zinc deposits were obtained.

Graphical abstract: Homoleptic and heteroleptic N-alkylimidazole zinc(ii)-containing ionic liquids for high current density electrodeposition

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Jan 2014, accepted on 16 Jun 2014, published on 16 Jun 2014 and first published online on 16 Jun 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4DT00182F
Citation: Dalton Trans., 2014,43, 12329-12341
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    Homoleptic and heteroleptic N-alkylimidazole zinc(II)-containing ionic liquids for high current density electrodeposition

    M. Steichen, N. R. Brooks, L. Van Meervelt, J. Fransaer and K. Binnemans, Dalton Trans., 2014, 43, 12329
    DOI: 10.1039/C4DT00182F

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