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Issue 19, 2014
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Speciation, physical and electrolytic properties of eutectic mixtures based on CrCl3·6H2O and urea

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Abstract

The electrodeposition of chromium is a technologically vital process, which is principally carried out using aqueous chromic acid. In the current study, it is shown that eutectic mixtures of urea and hydrated chromium(III) chloride provide a liquid which reduces the toxicological issues associated with the current aqueous Cr(VI) electroplating solution. Using EXAFS, mass spectrometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy, it is shown that chromium is present predominantly as a cationic species. Conductivities are higher than for most comparable ionic liquids. It is shown that the electrodeposition of chromium is electrochemically reversible, with a current efficiency much higher than in aqueous electrolytes. Surface tension and density measurements indicate that hole theory is a valid model to describe transport properties in these liquids. Bulk Cr deposits are not macrocrystalline but they are generally crack-free. The deposits have a hardness of 600 ± 10 Vickers and, as such, are comparable to deposits from aqueous systems.

Graphical abstract: Speciation, physical and electrolytic properties of eutectic mixtures based on CrCl3·6H2O and urea

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Publication details

The article was received on 08 Jan 2014, accepted on 24 Mar 2014 and first published on 26 Mar 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4CP00057A
Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014,16, 9047-9055
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
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    Speciation, physical and electrolytic properties of eutectic mixtures based on CrCl3·6H2O and urea

    A. P. Abbott, A. A. Al-Barzinjy, P. D. Abbott, G. Frisch, R. C. Harris, J. Hartley and K. S. Ryder, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 9047
    DOI: 10.1039/C4CP00057A

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