Towards environmentally benign approaches for the synthesis of CZTSSe nanocrystals by a hot injection method: a status review
With the earth's abundance of kesterite, recent progress in chalcogenide based Cu2ZnSn(Sx,Se1−x)4 (CZTSSe) thin films has drawn prime attention in thin film solar cells (TFSCs) research and development. This review is focused on the current developments in the synthesis of CZTS nanocrystals (NCs) using a hot injection (HI) technique and provides comprehensive discussions on the current status of CZTSSe TFSCs. This article begins with a description of the advantages of nanoparticulate based thin films, and then introduces the basics of this technique and the corresponding growth mechanism is also discussed. A brief overview further addresses a series of investigations on the developments in the HI based CZTSSe NCs using different solvents in terms of their high toxicity to environmentally benign materials. A variety of recipes and techniques for the NCs ink formulation and thereby the preparation of absorber layers using NC inks are outlined, respectively. The deposition of precursor thin films, post-deposition processes such as sulfurization or selenization treatments and the fabrication of CZTSSe NCs based solar cells and their performances are discussed. Finally, we discussed concluding remarks and the perspectives for further developments in the existing research on CZTSSe based nanoparticulate (NP) TFSCs towards future green technology.