Oncologic photodynamic diagnosis and therapy: confocal Raman/fluorescence imaging of metal phthalocyanines in human breast cancer tissue in vitro
Raman microspectroscopy and confocal Raman imaging combined with confocal fluorescence were used to study the distribution and aggregation of aluminum tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (AlPcS4) in noncancerous and cancerous breast tissues. The results demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish between noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissue and to identify differences in the distribution and aggregation of aluminum phthalocyanine, which is a potential photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT), photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and photoimmunotherapy (PIT) of cancer. We have observed that the distribution of aluminum tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine confined in cancerous tissue is markedly different from that in noncancerous tissue. We have concluded that Raman imaging can be treated as a new and powerful technique useful in cancer photodynamic therapy, increasing our understanding of the mechanisms and efficiency of photosensitizers by better monitoring localization in cancer cells as well as the clinical assessment of the therapeutic effects of PDT and PIT.