Jump to main content
Jump to site search
PLANNED MAINTENANCE Close the message box

Scheduled maintenance upgrade on Thursday 4th of May 2017 from 8.00am to 9.00am (BST).

During this time our websites will be offline temporarily. If you have any questions please use the feedback button on this page. We apologise for any inconvenience this might cause and thank you for your patience.


Issue 46, 2013
Previous Article Next Article

Aqueous phase catalytic conversion of agarose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by metal chlorides

Author affiliations

Abstract

The production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) from agarose catalyzed by metal chlorides was studied in aqueous phase. A series of metal chlorides, including NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, ZnCl2, CrCl3, CuCl2 and FeCl3, were comparatively investigated to catalyze agarose degradation for the production of 5-HMF at temperatures of 180 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C, catalyst concentration of 0.5% (w/w), 1% (w/w) and 5% (w/w), time of 0–50 min, and substrate concentration of 2% (w/w). Results revealed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides, including NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2, resulted in higher 5-HMF yields from agarose with negligible amount of byproducts, such as levulinic acid and lactic acid, derived from further degradation reactions. 1% (w/w) MgCl2 was the most efficient catalyst among the tested metal chlorides for 5-HMF production from agarose and resulted in both the highest yield of 40.7% and highest selectivity of 49.1% at 200 °C for 35 min. The cleavage of C–O–C bond in agarose with subsequent isomerization of galactose to its ketose was considered as a possible mechanism for formation of 5-HMF under MgCl2 catalyzed conditions.

Graphical abstract: Aqueous phase catalytic conversion of agarose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by metal chlorides

Back to tab navigation
Please wait while Download options loads

Publication details

The article was received on 28 Jun 2013, accepted on 04 Oct 2013 and first published on 04 Oct 2013


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3RA43293A
Citation: RSC Adv., 2013,3, 24090-24098
  •   Request permissions

    Aqueous phase catalytic conversion of agarose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by metal chlorides

    L. Yan, D. D. Laskar, S. Lee and B. Yang, RSC Adv., 2013, 3, 24090
    DOI: 10.1039/C3RA43293A

Search articles by author