Calcium phosphatenanoparticles with different compositions and morphologies loaded with DNA were prepared. Plasmids which encoded either bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) or vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were used for transfection in epithelial cells (HeLa), osteoblast-like cells (MG-63), and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). In particular, cationic nanoparticles showed high transfection efficiency together with low cytotoxicity. The nanoparticles can either be used in dispersion or added to a calcium phosphate paste for injection into bone defects.
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