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Issue 19, 2013
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Hierarchical assembly of Ti(IV)/Sn(II) co-doped SnO2 nanosheets along sacrificial titanate nanowires: synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties

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Abstract

Hierarchical assembly of Ti(IV)/Sn(II)-doped SnO2 nanosheets along titanate nanowires serving as both sacrificial templates and a Ti(IV) source is demonstrated, using SnCl2 as a tin precursor and Sn(II) dopants and NaF as the morphology controlling agent. Excess fluoride inhibits the hydrolysis of SnCl2, promoting heterogeneous nucleation of Sn(II)-doped SnO2 on the titanate nanowires due to the insufficient oxidization of Sn(II) to Sn(IV). Simultaneously, titanate nanowires are dissolved forming Ti4+ species under the etching effect of in situ generated HF resulting in spontaneous Ti4+ ion doping of SnO2 nanosheets formed under hydrothermal conditions. Compositional analysis indicates that Ti4+ ions are incorporated by substitution of Sn sites at a high level (16–18 at.%), with uniform distribution and no phase separation. Mössbauer spectroscopy quantified the relative content of Sn(II) and Sn(IV) in both Sn(II)-doped and Ti(IV)/Sn(II) co-doped SnO2 samples. Electrochemical properties were investigated as an anode material in lithium ion batteries, demonstrating that Ti-doped SnO2 nanosheets show improved cycle performance, which is attributed to the alleviation of inherent volume expansion of the SnO2-based anode materials by substituting part of Sn sites with Ti dopants.

Graphical abstract: Hierarchical assembly of Ti(iv)/Sn(ii) co-doped SnO2 nanosheets along sacrificial titanate nanowires: synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties

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Publication details

The article was received on 13 May 2013, accepted on 13 Jul 2013 and first published on 01 Aug 2013


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3NR02456C
Citation: Nanoscale, 2013,5, 9101-9109
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    Hierarchical assembly of Ti(IV)/Sn(II) co-doped SnO2 nanosheets along sacrificial titanate nanowires: synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties

    H. Wang, L. Xi, J. Tucek, Y. Zhan, T. F. Hung, S. V. Kershaw, R. Zboril, C. Y. Chung and A. L. Rogach, Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 9101
    DOI: 10.1039/C3NR02456C

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