SnO2–CuO composite nanorods with a Janus structure were prepared by one-step flame spray pyrolysis. High-aspect-ratio SnO2 nanorods were positioned on one side of the spherical CuO powder. The mean length of the rod-shaped crystals decreased from 200 to 20 nm when the SnO2 content in the composite powders decreased from 70 to 10 wt%. Initially, SnO2–CuO composite nanopowders formed from the vapors in the high-temperature diffusion flame by surface growth and coagulation. Phase separation of the composite nanopowders occurred and rod-like Janus structures evolved during the growth of SnO2 and CuO crystals in the quenching process. The maximum charge capacities of pure SnO2 and the composite powders with SnO2/CuO of 90/10, 70/30, and 50/50 were 547, 499, 493, and 316 mA h g−1, respectively, at a high current density of 3000 mA g−1. The corresponding capacity retentions after 50 cycles were found to be 39, 47, 80, and 85%, respectively. The decrease in the charge capacity with increasing current density was slower in SnO2–CuO (70/30) composite powders than in pure SnO2. The Janus-structured SnO2–CuO (70/30) composite powders showed a high charge capacity and excellent cycling performance at high current densities.
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