The randomly nanotextured back electrode provides a simple and efficient route for enhancing photocurrent in polymer solar cells (PSCs) by light trapping, which can increase light absorption within a finite thickness of the active layer. In this study, we incorporated mono-disperse 60 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) into a 50 nm thick poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) anode buffer layer (ABL) to create a randomly nanotextured back electrode with 10 nm height variations in inverted-type PSCs. The roughened interface between the PS NP-PEDOT:PSS ABL and the Ag electrode scatters light in the visible range, leading to efficient light trapping within the device and enhanced light absorption in the active layer. Inverted PSCs with randomly nanotextured electrodes (ϕNP = 0.31) showed short-circuit current density (JSC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) values that were 15% higher than those of control devices with flat electrodes. External quantum efficiency, reflectance, and optical light scattering as a function of ϕNP were examined to determine the origin of the enhancement in JSC and PCE.