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Issue 14, 2013
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CD4 counting technologies for HIV therapy monitoring in resource-poor settings – state-of-the-art and emerging microtechnologies

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Abstract

Modern advancements in pharmaceuticals have provided individuals who have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with the possibility of significantly extending their survival rates. When administered sufficiently soon after infection, antiretroviral therapy (ART) allows medical practitioners to control onset of the symptoms of the associated acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Active monitoring of the immune system in both HIV patients and individuals who are regarded as “at-risk” is critical in the decision making process for when to start a patient on ART. A reliable and common method for such monitoring is to observe any decline in the number of CD4 expressing T-helper cells in the blood of a patient. However, the technology, expertise, infrastructure and costs to carry out such a diagnostic cannot be handled by medical services in resource-poor regions where HIV is endemic. Addressing this shortfall, commercialized point-of-care (POC) CD4 cell count systems are now available in such regions. A number of newer devices will also soon be on the market, some the result of recent maturing of charity-funded initiatives. Many of the current and imminent devices are enabled by microfluidic solutions, and this review will critically survey and analyze these POC technologies for CD4 counting, both on-market and near-to-market deployment. Additionally, promising technologies under development that may usher in a new generation of devices will be presented.

Graphical abstract: CD4 counting technologies for HIV therapy monitoring in resource-poor settings – state-of-the-art and emerging microtechnologies

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Publication details

The article was received on 15 Feb 2013, accepted on 22 Apr 2013 and first published on 22 Apr 2013


Article type: Critical Review
DOI: 10.1039/C3LC50213A
Citation: Lab Chip, 2013,13, 2731-2748
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    CD4 counting technologies for HIV therapy monitoring in resource-poor settings – state-of-the-art and emerging microtechnologies

    M. T. Glynn, D. J. Kinahan and J. Ducrée, Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 2731
    DOI: 10.1039/C3LC50213A

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