Layered zeolitic materials: an approach to designing versatile functional solids
Relevant layered zeolites have been considered in this perspective article from the point of view of the synthesis methodologies, materials characterization and catalytic implications, considering the unique physico-chemical characteristics of lamellar materials. The potential of layered zeolitic precursors to generate novel lamellar accessible zeolites through swelling, intercalation, pillarization, delamination and/or exfoliation treatments is studied, showing the chemical, functional and structural versatility exhibited by layered zeolites. Recent approaches based on the assembly of zeolitic nanosheets which act as inorganic structural units through the use of dual structural directing agents, the selective modification of germanosilicates and the direct generation of lamellar hybrid organic–inorganic aluminosilicates are also considered to obtain layered solids with well-defined functionalities. The catalytic applications of the layered zeolites are also highlighted, pointing out the high accessibility and reactivity of active sites present in the lamellar framework.