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High intensity ultrasound can be used for the production of novel materials and provides an unusual route to known materials without bulk high temperatures, high pressures, or long reaction times. Several phenomena are responsible for sonochemistry and specifically the production or modification of nanomaterials during ultrasonic irradiation. The most notable effects are consequences of acoustic cavitation (the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles), and can be categorized as primary sonochemistry (gas-phase chemistry occurring inside collapsing bubbles), secondary sonochemistry (solution-phase chemistry occurring outside the bubbles), and physical modifications (caused by high-speed jets or shock waves derived from bubble collapse). This tutorial review provides examples of how the chemical and physical effects of high intensity ultrasound can be exploited for the preparation or modification of a wide range of nanostructured materials.
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