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Issue 27, 2013
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The ubiquitous DOTA and its derivatives: the impact of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid on biomedical imaging

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Abstract

Over the last twenty-five years 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) has made a significant impact on the field of diagnostic imaging. DOTA is not the only metal chelate in use in medical diagnostics, but it is the only one to significantly impact on all of the major imaging modalities Magnetic Resonance (MR), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and Fluorescence imaging. This crossover of modalities has been possible due to the versatility of DOTA firstly, to complex a variety of metal ions and secondly, the ease with which it can be modified for different disease states. This has driven research over the last two decades into the chemistry of DOTA and the modification of the substituent pendant arms of this macrocycle to create functional, targeted and dual-modal imaging agents. The primary use of DOTA has been with the lanthanide series of metals, gadolinium for MRI, europium and terbium for fluorescence and neodymium for near infra-red imaging. There are now many research groups dedicated to the use of lanthanides with DOTA although other chelates such as DTPA and NOTA are being increasingly employed. The ease with which DOTA can be conjugated to peptides has given rise to targeted imaging agents seen in the PET, SPECT and radiotherapy fields. These modalities use a variety of radiometals that complex with DOTA, e.g.64Cu and 68Ga which are used in clinical PET scans, 111In, and 90Y for SPECT and radiotherapy. In this article, we will demonstrate the remarkable versatility of DOTA, how it has crossed the imaging modality boundaries and how it has been successfully transferred into the clinic.

Graphical abstract: The ubiquitous DOTA and its derivatives: the impact of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid on biomedical imaging

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Publication details

The article was received on 26 Nov 2012, accepted on 29 Jan 2013 and first published on 30 Jan 2013


Article type: Feature Article
DOI: 10.1039/C3CC38507H
Citation: Chem. Commun., 2013,49, 2732-2746
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    The ubiquitous DOTA and its derivatives: the impact of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid on biomedical imaging

    G. J. Stasiuk and N. J. Long, Chem. Commun., 2013, 49, 2732
    DOI: 10.1039/C3CC38507H

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