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A Fe–Cu–Al–O water gas shift catalyst with a Fe:Cu atomic ratio of 4:1 upon pretreatment at 350 °C in H2 exhibits a conversion higher than a physical mixture of Fe–Al–O and Cu–Al–O by 40% over a temperature range of 300 °C–450 °C. In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggest that the surface region of Fe–Cu–Al–O was restructured into a double-layer structure consisting of a surface layer of Fe3O4 and a metallic Cu layer below it upon pretreatment at 350 °C. The strong metal (Cu)–oxide (Fe3O4) interface effect of this double layer structure enhances the catalytic activity of Fe3O4 in WGS.
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