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Issue 22, 2013
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Graphene oxide as a solid sorbent for the preconcentration of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc and lead prior to determination by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

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Abstract

A new method for sample preparation using graphene oxide (GO) as a novel sorbent was developed for the preconcentration of trace amounts of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II). The proposed preconcentration procedure is based on dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (DMSPE). It means that GO was dispersed in aqueous samples containing trace elements to be determined. During the stirring of the analyte solution containing the GO suspension, metal ions were sorbed by GO. After the sorption, the solution was filtered under vacuum and GO with the metal ions was collected onto a membrane filter. The obtained samples were analyzed directly by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). The parameters affecting the extraction and preconcentration process were optimized. The pH of the analyte solution, the amount of GO, the sample volume, the contact time between analytes and sorbent (stirring time), and the effects of foreign metals are discussed in detail in this paper. The proposed procedure allows us to obtain the detection limits of 0.5, 0.7, 1.5, 1.8 and 1.4 ng mL−1 for Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The linearity of the method is in the range of 5–100 ng mL−1. The proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of water. The accuracy of the method was verified using spiked samples and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) as a comparative technique. The recoveries over the range of 94–106% were obtained. This paper shows the great potential of GO as an excellent sorbent in the preconcentration field of analytical chemistry. The proposed method meets green chemistry rules.

Graphical abstract: Graphene oxide as a solid sorbent for the preconcentration of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc and lead prior to determination by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

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Publication details

The article was received on 23 Aug 2013, accepted on 23 Aug 2013 and first published on 13 Sep 2013


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3AY41451E
Citation: Anal. Methods, 2013,5, 6425-6430
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    Graphene oxide as a solid sorbent for the preconcentration of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc and lead prior to determination by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    B. Zawisza, R. Sitko, E. Malicka and E. Talik, Anal. Methods, 2013, 5, 6425
    DOI: 10.1039/C3AY41451E

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