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Issue 1, 2013
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Tattoo-based potentiometric ion-selective sensors for epidermal pH monitoring

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This article presents the fabrication and characterization of novel tattoo-based solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for non-invasive potentiometric monitoring of epidermal pH levels. The new fabrication approach combines commercially available temporary transfer tattoo paper with conventional screen printing and solid-contact polymer ISE methodologies. The resulting tattoo-based potentiometric sensors exhibit rapid and sensitive response to a wide range of pH changes with no carry-over effects. Furthermore, the tattoo ISE sensors endure repetitive mechanical deformation, which is a key requirement of wearable and epidermal sensors. The flexible and conformal nature of the tattoo sensors enable them to be mounted on nearly any exposed skin surface for real-time pH monitoring of the human perspiration, as illustrated from the response during a strenuous physical activity. The resulting tattoo-based ISE sensors offer considerable promise as wearable potentiometric sensors suitable for diverse applications.

Graphical abstract: Tattoo-based potentiometric ion-selective sensors for epidermal pH monitoring

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Publication details

The article was received on 02 Oct 2012, accepted on 17 Oct 2012 and first published on 19 Oct 2012

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2AN36422K
Citation: Analyst, 2013,138, 123-128
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    Tattoo-based potentiometric ion-selective sensors for epidermal pH monitoring

    A. J. Bandodkar, V. W. S. Hung, W. Jia, G. Valdés-Ramírez, J. R. Windmiller, A. G. Martinez, J. Ramírez, G. Chan, K. Kerman and J. Wang, Analyst, 2013, 138, 123
    DOI: 10.1039/C2AN36422K

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