A chemical-free, environmentally friendly and harmless water immersion method is developed to delaminate anode oxidationtitaniananotube (TNT) arrays from Ti foils to obtain a free-standing TNTmembrane. The as-synthesized TNTmembrane with tunable thickness which is controlled by anodization time are used in low-temperature dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as a second layer to improve the DSSC efficiency. Compared with the common titaniananoparticleelectrode, a water-delaminated TNTmembraneelectrode of 16 μm in thickness can significantly enhance the DSSCs photovoltaic performance with a short-circuit current density from 3.87 to 7.63 mA cm−2 and a fill factor from 0.637 to 0.708, which combinatorially lead to a remarkable increment of photo conversion efficiency from 1.70% to 3.68%. The results show that, owing to its vertically aligned ordered nanotube structure, the TNT arrays exhibit trifunctional behavior when used as an electrode, which are charge generation, light scattering and I3− diffusion improvement.
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