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Issue 1, 2012
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Human erythema and matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA induction, in vivo, share an action spectrum which suggests common chromophores

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Abstract

Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) is widely regarded as a biomarker of photoageing. We tested the hypothesis that MMP-1 mRNA expression and erythema share a common action spectrum by comparing the effects of erythemally equivalent doses of UVB, UVA1 and solar simulated radiation (SSR) on acute MMP-1 mRNA expression in whole human skin in vivo. Our results show comparable MMP-1 expression with all three spectra, which supports our hypothesis. The sharing of an action spectrum implies common chromophores, one of which is likely to be DNA. We have previously shown that all spectra that we used readily induce cyclobutane thymine dimers (T<>T) in human epidermis in vivo but we lack quantitative data on damage to dermal DNA. This is important because we do not know if dermal MMP-1 induction occurs via direct damage to the dermis, or indirectly via damage to the epidermis. Our results show that UVB induces about 3 times more T<>T compared with erythemally equivalent doses of UVA1, which is similar to our published epidermal data. This supports previously published work that also implicates an unknown UVA1 chromophore for erythema and MMP-1 induction. However, the distribution of the dermal DNA damage varies considerably with spectrum. In the case of UVB it is primarily in the upper dermis, but with UVA1 it is evenly distributed. Thus, irrespective of chromophores, MMP-1 induction by direct dermal damage by both spectra is possible. The practical conclusions of our data are that the small (<5%) UVB content of solar UVR is likely to be the main cause of photoageing, at least in terms of MMP-1 expression. Furthermore, prevention of erythema by sunscreen use is likely to result in reduced MMP-1 expression.

Graphical abstract: Human erythema and matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA induction, in vivo, share an action spectrum which suggests common chromophores

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Publication details

The article was received on 05 Aug 2011, accepted on 23 Sep 2011 and first published on 14 Nov 2011


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C1PP05243H
Citation: Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2012,11, 216-223
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    Human erythema and matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA induction, in vivo, share an action spectrum which suggests common chromophores

    A. Tewari, C. Lahmann, R. Sarkany, J. Bergemann and A. R. Young, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2012, 11, 216
    DOI: 10.1039/C1PP05243H

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