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Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas, Multidisciplinary Research Building, Room 320D, 2030 Becker Drive, Lawrence, USA
; Fax: +1-785-864-1961
; Tel: +1-785-864-1610
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2013,11, 1179-1198
30 Aug 2012,
21 Dec 2012
First published online
21 Dec 2012
Toll-like receptor (TLR)-8 agonists typified by the 2-alkylthiazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine (CL075) chemotype are uniquely potent in activating adaptive immune responses by inducing robust production of T helper 1-polarizing cytokines, suggesting that TLR8-active compounds could be promising candidate vaccine adjuvants, especially for neonatal vaccines. Alkylthiazoloquinolines with methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl groups at C2 displayed comparable TLR8-agonistic potencies; activity diminished precipitously in the C2-pentyl compound, and higher homologues were inactive. The C2-butyl compound was unique in possessing substantial TLR7-agonistic activity. Analogues with branched alkyl groups at C2 displayed poor tolerance of terminal steric bulk. Virtually all modifications at C8 led to abrogation of agonistic activity. Alkylation on the C4-amine was not tolerated, whereas N-acyl analogues with short acyl groups (other than acetyl) retained TLR8 agonistic activity, but were substantially less water-soluble. Immunization in rabbits with a model subunit antigen adjuvanted with the lead C2-butyl thiazoloquinoline showed enhancements of antigen-specific antibody titers.
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Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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