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β-Lithiooxyphosphonium ylides, made in situ from an aldehyde and methylenetriphenylphosphorane, react with a second aldehyde to form E-allylic alcohols. α-Branching and α,β-unsaturation in the second aldehyde, together with the lack of further substitution on the phosphorane carbon play important roles in selectivity. A range of these aldehydes, in addition to aromatic aldehydes as the second aldehyde also provided synthetically useful access to E-allylic alcohols.