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Issue 23, 2012
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A graphene-based electrochemical competitive immunosensor for the sensitive detection of okadaic acid in shellfish

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Abstract

A novel graphene-based voltammetric immunosensor for sensitive detection of okadaic acid (OA) was developed. A simple and efficient electrografting method was utilized to functionalize graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (GSPE) by the electrochemical reduction of in situ generated 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt in acidic aqueous solution. Next, the okadaic acid antibody was covalently immobilized on the carboxyphenyl modified graphene electrodes via carbodiimide chemistry. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used to investigate the stepwise assembly of the immunosensor. A competitive assay between OA and a fixed concentration of okadaic acid–ovalbumin conjugate (OA–OVA) for the immobilized antibodies was employed for the detection of okadaic acid. The decrease of the [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− reduction peak current in the square wave voltammetry for various concentrations of okadaic acid was used for establishing the calibration curve. A linear relationship between the SWV peak current difference and OA concentration was obtained up to ∼5000 ng L−1. The developed immunosensor allowed a detection limit of 19 ng L−1 of OA in PBS buffer. The matrix effect studied with spiked shellfish tissue extracts showed a good percentage of recovery and the method was also validated with certified reference mussel samples.

Graphical abstract: A graphene-based electrochemical competitive immunosensor for the sensitive detection of okadaic acid in shellfish

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Publication details

The article was received on 04 Aug 2012, accepted on 04 Oct 2012 and first published on 09 Oct 2012


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2NR32146G
Citation: Nanoscale, 2012,4, 7593-7599
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    A graphene-based electrochemical competitive immunosensor for the sensitive detection of okadaic acid in shellfish

    S. Eissa and M. Zourob, Nanoscale, 2012, 4, 7593
    DOI: 10.1039/C2NR32146G

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