An ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based metabonomic approach, which utilizes both reversed-performance (RP) chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) separations, has been developed to characterize the global serum metabolic profile associated with myocardial infarction (MI). The HILIC was found necessary for a comprehensive serum metabonomic profiling, providing complementary information to RP chromatography. By combining with partial least squares discriminant analysis, 21 potential biomarkers in rat serum were identified. To further elucidate the pathophysiology of MI, related metabolic pathways have been studied. It was found that MI was closely related to disturbed sphingolipid metabolism, phospholipid catabolism, fatty acid transportation and metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, branched-chain amino acids metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism. With the presented metabonomic method, we systematically analyzed the therapeutic effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine Sini decoction (SND). The results demonstrated that SND administration could provide satisfactory effects on MI through partially regulating the perturbed metabolic pathways.