Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platforms have become important tools for sample analysis and treatment with interest for DNA, protein and cells studies or diagnostics due to benefits such as the reduced sample volume, low cost, portability and the possibility to build new analytical devices or be integrated into conventional ones. These platforms have advantages of a wide set of nanomaterials (NM) (i.e. nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanowires, graphene etc.) and offer excellent improvement in properties for many applications (i.e. detectors sensitivity enhancement, biolabelling capability along with other in-chip applications related to the specificities of the variety of nanomaterials with optical, electrical and/or mechanical properties). This review covers the last trends in the use of nanomaterials in microfluidic systems and the related advantages in analytical and bioanalytical applications. In addition to the applications of nanomaterials in LOCs, we also discuss the employment of such devices for the production and characterization of nanomaterials. Both framed platforms, NMs based LOCs and LOCs for NMs production and characterization, represent promising alternatives to generate new nanotechnology tools for point-of-care diagnostics, drug delivery and nanotoxicology applications.
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