A versatile electroless plating procedure for the fabrication of rhodium nanomaterials was developed, leading to deposits consisting of loosely agglomerated metal nanoparticles. By using carbon black as the substrate, supported rhodium nanoparticle clusters were obtained. In combination with ion track etched polymer templates, the deposition protocol allowed the first direct synthesis of rhodium nanotubes. Polymer dissolution provided access to well defined, supportless and free-standing rhodium nanotubes of nearly cylindrical shape, 300 nm opening diameter, 28 μm length and 50 nm wall thickness. The characterization by SEM, TEM, EDS and XRD confirmed the purity of the deposit, displayed a small particle size of approximately 3 nm and revealed gaps in the range of a few nanometers between the rhodium particles. BET analysis verified the presence of pores of <5 nm. To evaluate the electrocatalytic potential of the rhodium nanotubes, they were applied in the amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. Compared to classical nanoparticle-based sensing concepts, improved performance parameters (sensitivity, detection limit, and linear range) could be achieved.