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Issue 5, 2012
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Cyclic limonene dicarbonate as a new monomer for non-isocyanate oligo- and polyurethanes (NIPU) based upon terpenes

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Abstract

Herein we report a very versatile new route to linear as well as cross-linked terpene-based non-isocyanate poly(hydroxyurethanes) (NIPUs) and prepolymers derived from the novel cyclic limonene dicarbonate (CL). The catalytic carbonation of epoxidized limonene with CO2 was monitored in the presence of both homogeneous tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) and heterogeneous silica supported 4-pyrrolidinopyridinium iodide (SiO2-(I)) catalysts. The systematic variation of catalyst type, CO2 pressure and temperature enabled quantitative carbonation in bulk and incorporation of 34.4 wt% CO2 into CL. In contrast to conventional plant-oil-based cyclic carbonates, such terpene-based cyclic carbonates afford much higher CO2 fixation and do not contain ester groups. The absence of ester groups is essential to prevent side reactions during amine curing, such as ester cleavage and amide formation, impairing network formation and causing emission of low molecular weight polyols which can plastify NIPUs. Novel linear NIPUs and prepolymers were obtained by means of CL advancement with diamines such as 1,4-butane diamine (BDA), 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HMDA), 1,12-dodecane diamine (DADO) and isophorone diamine (IPDA). Molar mass and formation of amineamine and carbonate end groups were controlled by varying the CL/diamine molar ratio. Curing CL with tri- and polyfunctional amines such as citric acid aminoamides, tris(N-2-aminoethyl)amine, and amine-terminated hyperbranched polyethylenimines (Lupasol®) afforded novel NIPU thermoset resins. With increasing amine functionality of the curing agent, it was possible to increase both stiffness (Young's modulus of 4100 MPa) and glass transition temperatures (62 °C).

Graphical abstract: Cyclic limonene dicarbonate as a new monomer for non-isocyanate oligo- and polyurethanes (NIPU) based upon terpenes

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Publication details

The article was received on 20 Jan 2012, accepted on 06 Mar 2012 and first published on 07 Mar 2012


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35099H
Citation: Green Chem., 2012,14, 1447-1454
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    Cyclic limonene dicarbonate as a new monomer for non-isocyanate oligo- and polyurethanes (NIPU) based upon terpenes

    M. Bähr, A. Bitto and R. Mülhaupt, Green Chem., 2012, 14, 1447
    DOI: 10.1039/C2GC35099H

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