A green and effective approach for comprehensive component utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been described, based on the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass with a carbonaceous solid acid (CSA) derived from the hydrolyzed biomass residues under microwave irradiation. The as-synthesized CSA was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), which proved that the acid groups (–SO3H, –COOH) were successfully introduced onto the surface of CSA. Significantly, the CSA showed excellent catalytic hydrolysis performance for the lignocellulosic biomass under microwave irradiation, especially for the conversion of hemicellulose of the biomass. Microwave irradiation could greatly enhance the catalytic performance in our system. Various reaction parameters, such as temperature, reaction time, the amount of CSA and the ratio of solid to liquid, were evaluated. At mild temperatures (383–413 K), the cellulose and hemicellulose in the corncobs could be decomposed into corresponding sugars. The maximum glucose yield, xylose yield and arabinose yield could reach 34.6, 77.3 and 100%, respectively. The CSA can be recycled and reused. This approach may offer a promising strategy for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in the future.