Indirect measures were considered to study the lead transfer along the soil–melliferous flora–bee family–apiary products food chain. The concentrations of total and bioavailable lead in the soil were first investigated. Next, the lead level in different organs of melliferous flora and subsequently in the bee family and apiary products was measured. The results indicate a decrease in contamination as follows: honeybees > drones > propolis > wax > bee larvae > honey > royal jelly. The statistical analysis highlights the “lead pollution bioindicator” role of honeybees, honey and propolis. The risk factor parameter allows the prediction of the most impacted month and the least impacted of the melliferous season.
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Journal of Environmental Monitoring
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