Within the present contribution we highlight the feasibility of standard refinery units for the production of biofuels from different biomass-derived feedstock. The energy densification of biomass, as well as it’s logistics and incorporation within the refinery supply chain is thoroughly discussed. Likewise, special attention is focused on the catalytic cracking and hydrotreating of triglyceride-rich biomass feedstock, which is probably the most suitable one for co-processing in conventional refinery conversion units. However, the opportunities of other highly oxygenated feedstocks such as pyrolysis oils and sugars are also discussed. Conversion of different feedstocks into conventional liquid fuels by coupling of aqueous phase reforming (APR) with catalytic systems typical of standard petroleum refineries is also evaluated. Thus, here we review the chemistry, catalysis and challenges involved in the production of biofuels from biomass in conventional refineries.