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While the d0 transition-metal POMs of Group V (V5+, Nb5+, Ta5+) and Group VI (Mo6+, W6+) have been known for more than a century, the actinyl peroxide POMs, specifically those built of uranyl triperoxide or uranyl dihydroxidediperoxide polyhedra, were only realized within the last decade. While virtually every metal on the Periodic Table can form discrete clusters of some type, the actinyls are the only—in addition to the transition-metal POMs– whose chemistry is dictated by the prevalence of the ‘yl’ oxygen ligand. Thus this emerging structural, solution, and computational chemistry of actinide POMs warrants comparison to the mature chemistry of transition-metal POMs. This assessment between the transition-metal POMs and actinyl POMs (uranyl peroxide POMs, specifically) has provided much insight to the similarities and differences between these two chemistries. We further break down the comparison between the alkaline POMs of Nb and Ta; and the acidic POMs of V, Mo and W. This more indepth literature review and discussion reveals that while an initial evaluation suggests the actinyl POMs are more akin to the alkaline transition-metal POMs, they actually share characteristics unique to the acidic POMs as well. This tutorial review is meant to provide fodder for deriving new POM chemistries of both the familiar transition-metals and the emerging actinides, as well as fostering communication and collaboration between the two scientific communities.
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