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Dye-sensitized solar cells using nanocrystalline ZnO as the photoanode and a metal-free sensitizer with a benzothiadiazole entity directly connected to the 2-cyanoacrylic acid acceptor exhibited an efficiency (5.18%) higher than those using the TiO2 photoanode. Use of a hierarchical ZnO back scattering layer further improved the efficiency to 5.82%.
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