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Issue 9, 2012
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A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of para red in foods

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Abstract

Para red is a synthetic dye and a potential genotoxic carcinogen. A hapten mimicking Para red structure was synthesized by introducing a carboxyl to the naphthol part of Para red and coupled to carrier protein to form an immunogen for the production of specific antibodies. A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Para red in food samples. The limit of detection and inhibition half-maximum concentrations of Para red in phosphate buffered saline with 10% methanol were 0.06 and 2.2 ng mL−1, respectively. Cross-reactivity values of the ELISA with the tested compounds including Sudan red I, II, III, IV, and G, sunset yellow, 2-naphthol, and 4-nitroaniline were ≤0.2%. This assay was used to determine Para red in tomato sauce, chilli sauce, chilli powder and sausage samples after ultrasonic extraction, cleanup and concentration steps. The average recoveries, repeatability (intraday extractions and analysis), and intra-laboratory reproducibility (interday extractions and analysis) were in the range 90–108%, 4–12% and 8–17%, respectively. This assay was compared to a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for 28 samples, displaying a good correlation (R2 = 0.95). Para red residues in 53 real world samples determined by ELISA were below the limit of detection.

Graphical abstract: A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of para red in foods

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Publication details

The article was received on 28 Jan 2012, accepted on 01 Mar 2012 and first published on 05 Mar 2012


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2AN35127G
Citation: Analyst, 2012,137, 2136-2142
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    A sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of para red in foods

    J. Wang, K. Wei, H. Li, Q. X. Li, J. Li and T. Xu, Analyst, 2012, 137, 2136
    DOI: 10.1039/C2AN35127G

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