Nanostructuring macromolecules and nanomaterials at the air–water interface through Langmuir monolayers, Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) and Langmuir–Schaefer (LS) films has been effectively used to investigate surface chemical/physical properties and achieve well-controlled surface morphologies. In this article, we review research progress and approaches in utilizing specific amphiphilic polymers, π-conjugated polymers, dendrons/dendrimers, metal/semiconductor nanoparticles, and colloidal spheres. Well-designed polymers, colloids, and nanomaterials enable structure–property correlation and observation of new phenomena not previously observed in bulk materials.
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