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Issue 1, 2011
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Non-aggregated Ga(III)-phthalocyanines in the photodynamic inactivation of planktonic and biofilm cultures of pathogenic microorganisms

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Abstract

Visible light-absorbing cationic water-soluble gallium(III) phthalocyanines (GaPcs) peripherally substituted with four and eight methylpyridyloxy groups were synthesized and investigated as antimicrobial photodynamic sensitizers. The inserted large gallium ion in the phthalocyanine ligand is axially substituted by one hydroxyl group which prevents aggregation of the complexes in aqueous solution. The cellular uptake and the photodynamic activity for the representative strains of the Gram positive bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and Enterococcus faecalis, of the Gram negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and of the fungus Candida albicans in planktonic phase were studied. The tetra-methylpyridyloxy substituted GaPc1 showed lower cellular uptake compared to the octa-methylpyridyloxy substituted GaPc2. The photodynamic activity of the GaPcs was studied in comparison to methylene blue (MB) and a photodynamically active Zn(II)-phthalocyanine with the same substitution (ZnPcMe). Photodynamic treatment with 3.0 μM GaPc1 at mild light conditions (50 J cm−2, 60 mW cm−2) resulted in a high photoinactivation of the microorganisms in the planktonic phase nevertheless the dark toxicity of GaPc1 towards MRSA and E. faecalis. GaPcs against fungal biofilm grown on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMC) resin showed a complete inactivation at a higher concentration of GaPc2 (6.0 μM) and of the referent sensitizer ZnPcMe. However, the bacterial biofilms were not susceptible to treatment of GaPcs with only 1–2 log reduction of the biofilm. The bacterial biofilm E. faecalis was effectively inactivated only with MB. The water-soluble octa-methylpyridyloxy substituted GaPc2 has a potential value for photodynamic treatment of C. albicans biofilms formed on denture acrylic resin.

Graphical abstract: Non-aggregated Ga(iii)-phthalocyanines in the photodynamic inactivation of planktonic and biofilm cultures of pathogenic microorganisms

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Publication details

The article was received on 02 Nov 2009, accepted on 05 Oct 2010, published on 29 Oct 2010 and first published online on 29 Oct 2010


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B9PP00154A
Citation: Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2011,10, 91-102
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    Non-aggregated Ga(III)-phthalocyanines in the photodynamic inactivation of planktonic and biofilm cultures of pathogenic microorganisms

    V. Mantareva, V. Kussovski, I. Angelov, D. Wöhrle, R. Dimitrov, E. Popova and S. Dimitrov, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2011, 10, 91
    DOI: 10.1039/B9PP00154A

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