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Conductive indium-tin oxidenanowire and nanotube arrays made by electrochemically assisted deposition in template membranes: switching between wire and tube growth modes by surface chemical modification of the template
Tin-doped indium hydroxide (InSnOH) nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) were grown from acidic aqueous solutions of inorganic precursors in a simple one-step electrochemically assisted deposition (EAD) process inside Au-plugged anodic aluminium oxide and polycarbonatemembranes. When the membranes were used without any pre-treatment, InSnOH crystals nucleated on the both the Au-cathode and pore wall surfaces. By adjusting the surface chemistry of Au or the pore walls, it was possible to switch between NW and NT growth modes. InSnOH was converted into indiumtin oxide (ITO) by annealing the InSnOH-filled membranes at 300 °C. The resulting wires and tubes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray and electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. InSnOH and ITO NWs and NTs consisted of 25–50 nm in size crystalline grains with the cubic crystal structures of In(OH)3 and In2O3, respectively, and showed essentially the same morphological features as planar ITO films made by the same method. Separate tin oxide/hydroxide phases were not observed by any of the characterization methods. After heating in air at 600 °C, the ITO NWs had resistivity on the order of 10°Ω cm. EAD is an inexpensive and scalable solution-based technique, and allows one to grow dense arrays of vertically aligned, crystalline and conductive ITO NWs and NTs.
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