Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics—opportunities and challenges
Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics/nanofluidics refers to a set of methodologies employing optical modulation of electrokinetic schemes to achieve particle or fluid manipulation at the micro- and nano-scale. Over the last decade, a set of methodologies, which differ in their modulation strategy and/or the length scale of operation, have emerged. These techniques offer new opportunities with their dynamic nature, and their ability for parallel operation has created novel applications and devices. Hybrid opto-electric techniques have been utilized to manipulate objects ranging in diversity from millimetre-sized droplets to nano-particles. This review article discusses the underlying principles, applications and future perspectives of various hybrid opto-electric techniques that have emerged over the last decade under a unified umbrella.