In this paper, the use of nanostructured anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reviewed. Nanostructured materials such as nano-carbons, alloys, metal oxides, and metal sulfides/nitrides have been used as anodes for next-generation LIBs with high reversible capacity, fast power capability, good safety, and long cycle life. This is due to their relatively short mass and charge pathways, high transport rates of both lithium ions and electrons, and other extremely charming surface activities. In this review paper, the effect of the nanostructure on the electrochemical performance of these anodes is presented. Their synthesis processes, electrochemical properties, and electrode reaction mechanisms are also discussed. The major goals of this review are to give a broad overview of recent scientific researches and developments of anode materials using novel nanoscience and nanotechnology and to highlight new progresses in using these nanostructured materials to develop high-performance LIBs. Suggestions and outlooks on future research directions in this field are also given.