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Issue 10, 2011
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Mesoporous ZSM-22 zeolite obtained by desilication: peculiarities associated with crystal morphology and aluminium distribution

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Abstract

Mesoporous ZSM-22 zeolite (TON structure) is prepared by controlled silicon extraction in aqueous NaOH under different conditions of concentration, temperature, and time. The first challenge is to synthesize a pure ZSM-22 sample, since ZSM-5 and cristobalite impurities are hard to avoid. For this purpose, hydrothermal syntheses in autoclaves of 30–1000 cm3 using tumbling or magnetic mixing were conducted. The parent (calcined) and alkaline-treated samples are characterised by XRD, AAS, N2 and Ar adsorption, TEM, 27Al MAS NMR, and FTIR. The introduction of mesoporosity in ZSM-22 crystals is not straightforward due to their peculiar characteristics: the rod-like morphology of their small crystallites, the one-dimensionality of the ellipsoidal micropore system, and an uneven Al distribution. Compared to other zeolite frameworks such as MFI, the generation of up to 95 m2 g−1 of (both inter- and intracrystalline) mesopore surface area by NaOH treatment leads to a sizeable drop of the micropore volume (down to 0.006 cm3 g−1), attributed to blocking by re-deposited Al species. A subsequent mild acid treatment in aqueous HCl restores ca. 90% of the original micropore volume and increases the mesopore surface area to 114 m2 g−1. However, due to the particular Al distribution in the parent ZSM-22 crystals, only 37% of the original Brønsted acidity is recovered. A new descriptor ‘desilication efficiency’ is introduced to relate the mesopore area generated to the mass of zeolite dissolved. In the case of ZSM-22 nanorods and ferrierite platelets, the desilication efficiency is relatively low compared to ZSM-5, most likely due to the crystal morphology of the former two zeolites. The auxiliary mesoporosity developed in ZSM-22 brings new prospects to catalytic applications of the zeolite due to the extensive creation of pore mouths in the hierarchical sample.

Graphical abstract: Mesoporous ZSM-22 zeolite obtained by desilication: peculiarities associated with crystal morphology and aluminium distribution

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Publication details

The article was received on 20 Dec 2010, accepted on 02 Feb 2011 and first published on 01 Mar 2011


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C0CE00966K
Citation: CrystEngComm, 2011,13, 3408-3416
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    Mesoporous ZSM-22 zeolite obtained by desilication: peculiarities associated with crystal morphology and aluminium distribution

    D. Verboekend, A. M. Chabaneix, K. Thomas, J. Gilson and J. Pérez-Ramírez, CrystEngComm, 2011, 13, 3408
    DOI: 10.1039/C0CE00966K

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