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Issue 5, 2011
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Determination of ten steroid hormones in animal waste manure and agricultural soil using inverse and integrated clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

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Abstract

This paper presents a novel analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of nine native and one synthetic steroid hormone in animal manure and agricultural soil. The optimized method applies pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) on manure samples packed in a 22 mL PLE cell: firstly by flushing the sample with heptane to remove unwanted matrix components (inverse-PLE, i-PLE) and secondly, performing internal clean-up (ic-PLE) and eluting the steroid hormones by attaching an additional 11 mL PLE cell downstream packed with graphite, silica and alumina. The PLE extracts were further cleaned by a two step solid phase clean-up (aminopropyl and silica gel), and in combination with a one hour derivatization the samples could be analyzed utilizing a GC-MS/MS system with PTV injector. Cholesterol, sitosterol and coprostanols were added and monitored during method development experiments as surrogates for environmental interfering compounds. The optimization demonstrated that the surrogate interfering compounds could be fractionated from the steroid hormones during the i-PLE step. The absolute PLE recoveries for the steroid hormones were between 67 and 107% from 0.5 g manure spiked with 50 ng. The method was applied on several manure and agricultural soil samples, demonstrating high levels of steroid hormones in manure and amended soils.

Graphical abstract: Determination of ten steroid hormones in animal waste manure and agricultural soil using inverse and integrated clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

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Publication details

The article was received on 06 Jan 2011, accepted on 18 Mar 2011 and first published on 14 Apr 2011


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C1AY00007A
Citation: Anal. Methods, 2011,3, 1087-1095
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    Determination of ten steroid hormones in animal waste manure and agricultural soil using inverse and integrated clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    M. Hansen, K. A. Krogh, B. Halling-Sørensen and E. Björklund, Anal. Methods, 2011, 3, 1087
    DOI: 10.1039/C1AY00007A

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