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Issue 8, 2010
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Energy densification of levulinic acid by thermal deoxygenation

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Abstract

This communication presents a process for thermal deoxygenation (TDO) to upgrade levulinic acid whereby levulinic acid is neutralized with calcium hydroxide, and the resulting salt is heated to between 350 °C and 450 °C. The cyclic and aromatic products have low oxygen to carbon ratios, improved energy density, and may be candidates for upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. The process may be useful for converting biomass-derived levulinic acid in an integrated forest products complex based on a kraft pulp mill which uses a lime cycle to regenerate calcium hydroxide.

Graphical abstract: Energy densification of levulinic acid by thermal deoxygenation

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Publication details

The article was received on 13 Apr 2010, accepted on 02 Jun 2010 and first published on 23 Jun 2010


Article type: Communication
DOI: 10.1039/C005067A
Citation: Green Chem., 2010,12, 1353-1356
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    Energy densification of levulinic acid by thermal deoxygenation

    T. J. Schwartz, A. R. P. van Heiningen and M. C. Wheeler, Green Chem., 2010, 12, 1353
    DOI: 10.1039/C005067A

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