This communication presents a process for thermal deoxygenation (TDO) to upgrade levulinic acid whereby levulinic acid is neutralized with calcium hydroxide, and the resulting salt is heated to between 350 °C and 450 °C. The cyclic and aromatic products have low oxygen to carbon ratios, improved energy density, and may be candidates for upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. The process may be useful for converting biomass-derived levulinic acid in an integrated forest products complex based on a kraft pulp mill which uses a lime cycle to regenerate calcium hydroxide.
Fetching data from CrossRef. This may take some time to load.