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Issue 37, 2010
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The electrodeposition of copper from supercritical CO2/acetonitrile mixtures and from supercritical trifluoromethane

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Abstract

The electrochemistry of [Cu(hfac)2], where hfac is hexafluoroacetylacetonate, and [Cu(MeCN)4]+ were investigated in liquid acetonitrile (MeCN), supercritical CO2/MeCN and supercritical trifluoromethane (CHF3) at 310–311 K and 17–20 MPa using either [NBun4][BF4] or [NBun4][B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4] as the supporting electrolyte. In liquid acetonitrile it is possible to deposit metallic Cu from both ([Cu(MeCN)4][BF4]) and [Cu(hfac)2] but voltammetry for the [Cu(hfac)2] system is more complex and there is evidence of stripping of the Cu by reaction with Cu(II). Voltammetry of the two copper complexes in scCO2/MeCN showed typical plating and stripping features but with slightly increased diffusion limited currents for copper reduction due to the decreased viscosity of the supercritical solvent. In scCO2/MeCN the Cu(I) complex, tetrakis(acetonitrile)copper(I) tetrafluoroborate ([Cu(MeCN)4][BF4]), was found to produce better quality copper deposits than the Cu(II) complex ([Cu(hfac)2]). The Cu(I) complex has the advantages that it is stable and does not undergo comproportionation with copper(0) and that its ligands are totally compatible with the scCO2/MeCN solvent system. The solubility of ([Cu(MeCN)4][BF4]) is limited in scCO2/MeCN but can be significantly improved by changing the anion for tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate ([B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4]). It was possible to deposit smooth copper films of high purity and low resistivity (down to 4.0 × 10−6 Ω cm) from the Cu(I) complex. Copper was also deposited from supercritical CHF3 using [Cu(hfac)2] as a precursor. Although the plating and stripping features in the voltammetry are complicated by the lack of cosolvent and electroreduction of the solvent or free ligands, it was possible to produce copper films with resistivities as low as 5.8 × 10−6 Ω cm.

Graphical abstract: The electrodeposition of copper from supercritical CO2/acetonitrile mixtures and from supercritical trifluoromethane

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Publication details

The article was received on 12 Mar 2010, accepted on 29 Jun 2010 and first published on 19 Aug 2010


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C004227G
Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010,12, 11744-11752
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    The electrodeposition of copper from supercritical CO2/acetonitrile mixtures and from supercritical trifluoromethane

    D. Cook, P. N. Bartlett, W. Zhang, W. Levason, G. Reid, J. Ke, W. Su, M. W. George, J. Wilson, D. Smith, K. Mallik, E. Barrett and P. Sazio, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 11744
    DOI: 10.1039/C004227G

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