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Issue 18, 2010
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Carbon nanoparticle surface functionalisation: converting negatively charged sulfonate to positively charged sulfonamide

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Abstract

The surface functionalities of commercial sulfonate-modified carbon nanoparticles (ca. 9–18 nm diameter, Emperor 2000) have been converted from negatively charged to positively charged via sulfonylchloride formation followed by reaction with amines to give suphonamides. With ethylenediamine, the resulting positively charged carbon nanoparticles exhibit water solubility (in the absence of added electrolyte), a positive zeta-potential, and the ability to assemble into insoluble porous carbon films via layer-by-layer deposition employing alternating positive and negative carbon nanoparticles. Sulfonamide-functionalised carbon nanoparticles are characterised by Raman, AFM, XPS, and voltammetric methods. Stable thin film deposits are formed on 3 mm diameter glassy carbon electrodes and cyclic voltammetry is used to characterise capacitive background currents and the adsorption of the negatively charged redox probe indigo carmine. The Langmuirian binding constant K = 4000 mol−1dm3 is estimated and the number of positively charged binding sites per particle determined as a function of pH.

Graphical abstract: Carbon nanoparticle surface functionalisation: converting negatively charged sulfonate to positively charged sulfonamide

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Publication details

The article was received on 05 Jan 2010, accepted on 12 Feb 2010 and first published on 17 Mar 2010


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B927434K
Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010,12, 4872-4878
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    Carbon nanoparticle surface functionalisation: converting negatively charged sulfonate to positively charged sulfonamide

    J. D. Watkins, R. Lawrence, J. E. Taylor, S. D. Bull, G. W. Nelson, J. S. Foord, D. Wolverson, L. Rassaei, N. D. M. Evans, S. A. Gascon and F. Marken, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 4872
    DOI: 10.1039/B927434K

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