Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 8, 2010
Previous Article Next Article

Insights into the surface composition and enrichment effects of ionic liquids and ionic liquid mixtures

Author affiliations

Abstract

A systematic study of ionic liquid surfaces by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) is presented. By reviewing recent and presenting new results for imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), we discuss the impact of chemical differences on surface composition and on surface enrichment effects. (1) For the hydrophilic ethylene glycol (EG) functionalised ILs [Me(EG)MIm][Tf2N], [Et(EG)2MIm][Tf2N] and [Me(EG)3MIm][Tf2N], which vary in the number of ethylene glycol units (from 1 to 3), we find that the surface composition of the near-surface region is in excellent agreement with the bulk composition, which is attributed to attractive interactions between the oxygen atoms on the cation to the hydrogen atoms on the imidazolium ring. (2) For [CnC1Im][Tf2N] (where n = 1–16), i.e. ILs with an alkyl chain of increasing length, an enrichment of the aliphatic carbons is observed for longer chains (n > 2), at the expense of the polar cation head groups and the anions in the first molecular layer, both of which are located approximately at the same distance from the outer surface. (3) To study the influence of the anion on the surface enrichment, we investigated ten ILs [C8C1Im][X] with the same cation, but very different anions [X]. In all cases, surface enrichment of the cation alkyl chains is found, with the degree of enrichment decreasing with increasing size of the anion, i.e., it is most pronounced for the smallest anions and least pronounced for the largest anions. (4) For the IL mixture [C2C1Im][Tf2N] and [C12C1Im][Tf2N] we find a homogeneous distribution in the outermost surface region with no specific enrichment of the [C12C1Im]+ cation.

Graphical abstract: Insights into the surface composition and enrichment effects of ionic liquids and ionic liquid mixtures

Back to tab navigation

Publication details

The article was received on 05 Oct 2009, accepted on 04 Dec 2009 and first published on 09 Jan 2010


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B920804F
Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010,12, 1905-1915
  •   Request permissions

    Insights into the surface composition and enrichment effects of ionic liquids and ionic liquid mixtures

    F. Maier, T. Cremer, C. Kolbeck, K. R. J. Lovelock, N. Paape, P. S. Schulz, P. Wasserscheid and H.-P. Steinrück, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 1905
    DOI: 10.1039/B920804F

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements