Advanced printing and deposition methodologies are revolutionising the way biological molecules are deposited and leading to changes in the mass production of biosensors and biodevices. This revolution is being delivered principally through adaptations of printing technologies to device fabrication, increasing throughputs, decreasing feature sizes and driving production costs downwards. This review looks at several of the most relevant deposition and patterning methodologies that are emerging, either for their high production yield, their ability to reach micro- and nano-dimensions, or both. We look at inkjet, screen, microcontact, gravure and flexographic printing as well as lithographies such as scanning probe, photo- and e-beam lithographies and laser printing. We also take a look at the emerging technique of plasma modification and assess the usefulness of these for the deposition of biomolecules and other materials associated with biodevice fabrication.
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