A microdevice is developed for DNA-barcode directed capture of single cells on an array of pH-sensitive microelectrodes for metabolic analysis. Cells are modified with membrane-bound single-stranded DNA, and specific single-cell capture is directed by the complementary strand bound in the sensor area of the iridium oxide pH microelectrodes within a microfluidic channel. This bifunctional microelectrode array is demonstrated for the pH monitoring and differentiation of primary T cells and Jurkat T lymphoma cells. Single Jurkat cells exhibited an extracellular acidification rate of 11 milli-pH min−1, while primary T cells exhibited only 2 milli-pH min−1. This system can be used to capture non-adherent cells specifically and to discriminate between visually similar healthy and cancerous cells in a heterogeneous ensemble based on their altered metabolic properties.