The Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) field study examined indoor and outdoor exposure to traffic-generated air pollution by studying the individual processes of generation of traffic emissions, transport and dispersion of air contaminants along a roadway, and infiltration of the contaminants into a residence. Real-time instrumentation was used to obtain highly resolved time-series concentration profiles for a number of air pollutants. The B-TRAPPED field study was conducted in the residential Sunset Park neighborhood of Brooklyn, NY, USA, in May 2005. The neighborhood contained the Gowanus Expressway (Interstate 278), a major arterial road (4th Avenue), and residential side streets running perpendicular to the Gowanus Expressway and 4th Avenue. Synchronized measurements were obtained inside a test house, just outside the test house façade, and along the urban residential street canyon on which the house was located. A trailer containing Federal Reference Method (FRM) and real-time monitors was located next to the Gowanus Expressway to assess the source. Ultrafine particulate matter (PM), PM2.5, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction were monitored. Different sampling schemes were devised to focus on dispersion along the street canyon or infiltration into the test house. Results were obtained for ultrafine PM, PM2.5, criteria gases, and wind conditions from sampling schemes focused on street canyon dispersion and infiltration. For comparison, the ultrafine PM and PM2.5 results were compared with an existing data set from the Los Angeles area, and the criteria gas data were compared with measurements from a Vancouver epidemiologic study. Measured ultrafine PM and PM2.5 concentration levels along the residential urban street canyon and at the test house façade in Sunset Park were demonstrated to be comparable to traffic levels at an arterial road and slightly higher than those in a residential area of Los Angeles. Indoor ultrafine PM levels were roughly 3–10 times lower than outdoor levels, depending on the monitor location. CO, NO2, and SO2 levels were shown to be similar to values that produced increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalizations in the Vancouver studies.