Multifunctional 3D nanoarchitectures for energy storage and conversion
The design and fabrication of three-dimensional multifunctional architectures from the appropriate nanoscale building blocks, including the strategic use of void space and deliberate disorder as design components, permits a re-examination of devices that produce or store energy as discussed in this critical review. The appropriate electronic, ionic, and electrochemical requirements for such devices may now be assembled into nanoarchitectures on the bench-top through the synthesis of low density, ultraporous nanoarchitectures that meld high surface area for heterogeneous reactions with a continuous, porous network for rapid molecular flux. Such nanoarchitectures amplify the nature of electrified interfaces and challenge the standard ways in which electrochemically active materials are both understood and used for energy storage. An architectural viewpoint provides a powerful metaphor to guide chemists and materials scientists in the design of energy-storing nanoarchitectures that depart from the hegemony of periodicity and order with the promise—and demonstration—of even higher performance (265 references).