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Issue 7, 2008
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Photophysical properties of a photocytotoxic fluorinated chlorin conjugated to four β-cyclodextrins

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Abstract

A meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-chlorin with the reduced pyrrole ring linked to an isoxazolidine ring (FC) has been conjugated to four β-cyclodextrins (CDFC). The CDFC exhibits excellent water solubility and is a potent photosensitizer towards proliferating NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes. The study by conventional steady state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies and by time-resolved femto- and nanosecond laser flash spectroscopies suggests that in ethanol and pH 7 buffer the β-cyclodextrins embed the highly hydrophobic tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-chlorin macrocycle and strongly interact with the chlorin rings in the singlet and triplet manifolds. In these solvents, femtosecond spectroscopy suggests that the conjugate undergoes a rapid relaxation in the upper excited singlet states induced by photochemical and/or conformation change(s) at a rate of about 5 ps−1 to fluorescent states whose lifetime is ∼8 ns. This interaction is destroyed upon addition of Triton X100 to buffer. Both FC and CDFC strongly fluoresce (ΦF ∼ 0.5) in micelles. Similar behavior is observed at the triplet level. In ethanol and water, the initial transient triplet state absorbance decays within 1–3 μs yielding a longer lived triplet with spectral properties indistinguishable from that of original difference absorbance spectra. The determination of the molar absorbance in the 440–460 nm region (∼35 000 M−1 cm−1) leads to an estimate of ∼0.2 for the triplet formation quantum yield of FC in toluene and of FC and CDFC in Triton X100 micelles. Quenching of the CDFC triplets by dioxygen in buffer produces 1O2 in a good yield consistent with the effective photocytotoxicity of the chlorincyclodextrins conjugate towards cultured NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes. By contrast, FC which aggregates in buffer produces little if any 1O2.

Graphical abstract: Photophysical properties of a photocytotoxic fluorinated chlorin conjugated to four β-cyclodextrins

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Publication details

The article was received on 08 Jan 2008, accepted on 09 Apr 2008 and first published on 07 May 2008


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B800348C
Citation: Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2008,7, 834-843
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    Photophysical properties of a photocytotoxic fluorinated chlorin conjugated to four β-cyclodextrins

    J. N. Silva, A. M. G. Silva, J. P. Tomé, A. O. Ribeiro, M. R. M. Domingues, J. A. S. Cavaleiro, A. M. S. Silva, M. G. P. M. S. Neves, A. C. Tomé, O. A. Serra, F. Bosca, P. Filipe, R. Santus and P. Morlière, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2008, 7, 834
    DOI: 10.1039/B800348C

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