A review of the research conducted during the past 30 years on the distribution, taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, physiology and bioluminescence mechanisms of luminescent fungi is presented. We recognize 64 species of bioluminescent fungi belonging to at least three distinct evolutionary lineages, termed Omphalotus, Armillaria and mycenoid. An accounting of their currently accepted names, distributions, citations reporting luminescence and whether their mycelium and/or basidiomes emit light are provided. We address the physiological and ecological aspects of fungal bioluminescence and provide data on the mechanisms responsible for bioluminescence in the fungi.
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Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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