We have designed and fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device containing an array of gold spots onto which antigens or antibodies of interest can be attached. We use surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging to monitor the antibody–antigen recognition and binding events. This combination offers two significant advantages: (1) the microfluidic device dramatically reduces reaction time and sample consumption; and (2) the SPR imaging yields real-time detection of the immunocomplex formation. Thus, an immunoreaction may be detected and quantitatively characterized in about 10 min. The sensitivity of this method is at the subnanomolar level. When gold nanoparticles are selectively coupled to the immunocomplex to cause signal amplification, the sensitivity reaches the ten to one hundred picomolar level but the time required increases to about 60 min.